LUSHOTO DISTRICT PROFILE Lushoto District is situated in the Northern part of Tanga region within 40 25’ – 40 55’ Latitude south of the Equator and 300 10’ – 380 35’ Longitude East of Greenwich. The district shares borders with Same District in the north – west, Republic of Kenya in the north-east, and Korogwe District in the south. Area and physical characteristics The District has an area of 3,500km2 and accounts for about 12.8% of Tanga Region. The Western Usambara Mountains dominate the landscape which lies between 300 – 2100 meters above sea level. The main physical features are: a) Highlands The highlands cover about 75% (2625 km2) of the total District area, with altitude of 1000 – 2100m above sea level. b) Lowlands The lowlands cover about 25% (875km2) of the total District area between an altitude of 300 – 600m above see level. The mountains and their lower slopes occupy about 90% of the total land of Lushoto district. The slopes are moderately steep to very steep and there are many narrow valleys as well as rock outcrop in the terrain. Climatic and Rainfall The mountainous areas of Lushoto are cooler and less humid than the coastal areas of Tanga Region. The highest temperatures are reached in the period October to February and lowest during June to August. Lushoto district generally receives rainfall on a bimodal pattern, with short rains from October to December and long rains from March to June. The short rains are less reliable than the long rains. The highlands get an average of 800 – 2000mm rainfall per annum and the lowlands get about 500-800 mm per year. Agro–ecological zones Lushoto District can be divided on the basis of topography and climate into five agro-ecological zones that offer different cropping possibilities. The zones are humid warm, dry hot, humid cold, dry warm and dry cold (Table 1). ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS The district has eight divisions that are subdivided into 32 wards with a total number of 176 villages. POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH: According to the 2002 National Population and Household Census, the district had 418,652 People, of whom 190,873 were Male and 227,779 Female. With an annual growth rate of 1.1% the District estimated to have 437,073 People of whom 199,272 were Male and 237,801 female. The under five is estimated to be 91,785 and women with bearing age is estimated to be 90,364. Population in each ward was as follows:- 2006 POPULATION ESTIMATES 2.1 Health There are 2 Hospitals, 1 Government Hospital and the other one owned by ELCT-NED . 7 Health Centres 6 owned by the government and 1 Health Centre is Privately owned. There are 43 dispensaries 32 owned by the government and 11 are privately owned. These combination of government and privately owned health facilities present a good public-private health services provision in the district. All health facilities offer both curative and preventive services to the community, with an average of 8,405 people per Health Facility. About 85% of the total population has access to a health facility within a distance of 5 km; 10% between 5 -10 km. and the remaining 5% more than 10 km. The ten major diseases that are prevalent in the district are Malaria, Pneumonia, Anemia, Diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection, Worm Infection, HIV/AIDS, Eye Diseases, Urinary Tract Infection and Heart Diseases. HIV/AIDS; AIDS affects people in Lushoto District and Other parts of the country. Since 1989 up to 2003 the District had registered 1672 Affected people and 350 Death had occurred. The spread of AIDS in 8 Divisions can be ranked as follows: 1)Lushoto (2)Mlalo (3) Mtae (4) Bumbuli (5) Umba (6) Mlola (7) Mgwashi the state of Transmission in the District is now reaching 11.5% by Average basing on the blood tests. The Most Affected areas are:- i. Market Areas/Market centers for fruits and vegetables. ii. Town ship areas and Trade centers (with large mixture of people) Factors Accelerating the transmission of HIV virus in our district are:- i. Vegetables and fruits trade ii. Hardship in life iii. Living away from the family and return only during Holidays. iv. Unemployment For Youth /Lack of employment for youth) v. Tradition and Taboos (Widow in heritance and polygamy) vi. Drunkenness (Alcoholism.) The District is putting more efforts in combating this catastrophe by educating people, Distributing condoms and conduct counseling, educating cultural groups and “(Makungwi) and Ngariba,ect. 2.2 Education: i) Primary Education Shortage of classrooms, school furnitures, teachers houses, pit latrines and other necessary materials for teaching purposes have greatly affected the quality of Primary Education. However some improvement has been achieved since 2001 after starting implementation of Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP). The District has 232 Primary Schools with 131,899 (64,982 male and 66,917 females) pupils, There are 2153 primary school teachers (1062 males and 1091 females). Grade A are 1396, Grade B/C are 731 and teachers with diploma are 26, the District has a deficit of 1339 teachers. ii) Secondary Education: The decision by the government to allow Private and Community participation in promoting Secondary Education in the country has greatly-stimulated development of Secondary Education in the district. In 2005 the district had 30 Secondary Schools but currently there are 38 out of which 29 are Government and the remaining 9 are owned by Community and Religious Organizations. 2.3 Rural Water Supply: The traditional sources of water for the district are springs and streams, which flow down the slopes of Usambara Mountains. Due to the Topographical features of the district, human settlements are located on top of ridges and water sources in many villages are found down the hills making the task of fetching water for domestic use to be cumbersome and time consuming The government in collaboration with different development partners has been trying to solve water problems in the district by constructing gravity water schemes, and shallow wells. Currently, a total of 238,205 people (54.5% of population) have access to safe and clean water through water pipes and shallow wells . There are 58 water supply schemes and 76 shallow wells, 80 villages have water Accounts, 152 water committees have been formed in the villages and Water Board has been established in Lushoto Township. 2.4 Telecommunications; The telecommunication networks available in the district include land line telephones operated by Tanzania Telecommunications Company Ltd, and mobile phone services provided by AIR TEL, TIGO, ZANTEL and VODACOM. postal services are run by Tanzania Postal Services Company Ltd. Fax services are also available. Telephone and postal services are available in Soni, Bumbuli, Mtae, Mlalo, Sunga, Lukozi and Kifungilo as well as in the district headquarters at Lushoto town. 3.0 ECONOMIC SERVICES: The economy of Lushoto district is based largely on its natural resources and the major sectors include agriculture, forestry, mining and tourism. Crop production, livestock husbandry and forestry generate the main sources of income. The estimated per capital income of the district is 180,000 TShs. per annum. Lushoto district supplies several regions in Tanzania, e.g. Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Morogoro with fruits and vegetables. 3.2 ROAD SERVICES; Lushoto District is inter / intra connected with roads covering about 1236 km: 32 km is tarmac (Mombo – Lushoto road), 169 km are Murram roads, 1035 km are earth roads without a murram or gravel coating. TANROAD maintains the tarmac portion while the rest is under the care of the district authorities. The district roads provide a link between rural centres in the district and most of these roads are passable, especially during the dry season. 3.3 AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION; Almost 68% (240,000 ha.) of the district is arable land suitable for agricultural production and the sector employs about 85% of the district population. Both food and cash crops are produced mainly on small scale although there are some estates growing tea. The food crops grown include maize, rice, potatoes, beans, cassava and bananas where as cash crops include vegetables, fruits, Irish potatoes, coffee, paddy, tea, sisal and cotton. Some products especially fruits and vegetables are facing storage, transportation and marketing problems. However, the farmers in the district face a serious land shortage as a result of an increase in population. The available land is intensively utilized for maximum production; the intensification and conservation measures include mixed-cropping, tree cropping, use of manure, irrigation and terracing. However, soil erosion remains a serious threat to crop production in the steeper slopes. The district authorities are promoting irrigation to reduce the dependency on rain-fed cultivation. Irrigation is practiced in many places in the district due to the presence of many streams. The potential land for irrigation is 11,000 ha. but only 6000 ha. are currently under modern and traditional irrigation schemes. The types of livestock found in the district include sheep, cattle, poultry, pigs, donkey and goats. Livestock is unevenly distributed in the district and their husbandry is limited by the poor availability of veterinary services. 3.4 Natural Resources and Minerals The District has different natural resources which include forests, game reserves, and minerals. The scenic mountains, forests and game reserves offer good sites to attract both local and foreign tourists. 3.4.1 Forests Forests cover 41,701 Ha, equivalent to 12% of the total District area. The forests are divided into dense and open forests (shrub, bush, thick forest reserve). Most of the forests are natural while some had been planted by people. The District undertakes aforestation to curb the deforestation of the Usambara Mountains and prevent the loss of their habitats that are internationally recognized for high level of diversity and endemicity. 3.4.2 Wild life/game reserves The District has 1 Game Reserve (Mkomazi / Umba 1500km2) and two game controlled areas (Kalimawe 300km2 and Umba 300 km2). These wildlife reserves account for about 60% of the district area. No settlement and agricultural activity is allowed in the Game Reserve. 3.5 Mining and quarrying: Mining activities have not been established in many areas simply because there are no proper surveys to confirm the existence of minerals. Some of the minerals found in the district are bauxite in Magamba village, ruby, rhodelite and others. 3.6 Cultural Eco-tourism The District has potential in cultural tourism where the tourists will get in close contact to the friendly and welcoming population of Lushoto District and will have a deep insight in their living and working conditions, while enjoying the scenic landscape, variety of vegetation and wildlife, and good climate. These features offer a wide variety of possibilities for investment in ecotourism. This would as well contribute to employment and income generation as it would strengthen the conservation efforts through the non-consumptive uses of the natural resources.